Minnesota Now July 26 2022

CATHY WURZER: It is Minnesota Now. I am Cathy Wurzer. Nurses on the Mankato Hospital have voted to depart their union. The choice and its potential results. There are Minnesotans concerned within the conferences between leaders of Canada’s First Nations and the Pope? We’ll hear from them as effectively.


CPR saves lives. However have you learnt precisely the way it works and give CPR? Dr. Jay Sheri Alvin is right here to let you know. Richfield’s youngest mayor’s additionally Minnesota’s first Latina mayor and she or he’s not working for re-election. We’ll discover out why and what’s subsequent for her. And a brand new discovery about meat-eating dinosaurs– get your inside paleontologist prepared for some dino information. All of that plus the music of the day and the Minnesota Music Minute– all that developing proper after the information.

LAKSHMI SINGH: Stay from NPR Information in Washington, I am Lakshmi Singh. The US Senate is one step nearer to passing a serious piece of laws geared toward supporting home manufacturing of semiconductor chips. NPR’s Barbara Sprunt reviews. This comes after provide chain points on the merchandise that energy the nation’s smartphones, automobiles, and weapons techniques.

BARBARA SPRUNT: The Senate cleared a procedural vote with bipartisan help teeing up a remaining vote this week on the CHIPS Invoice, shorthand for Creating Useful Incentives to Produce Semiconductors for America. The invoice would offer $54 billion in grants for semiconductor manufacturing and analysis, tens of billions to help regional expertise hubs, and a 25% tax credit score for investments in semiconductor manufacturing.

Supporters argue the laws is lengthy overdue and can decrease US reliance on China for chip manufacturing, which they are saying poses a nationwide safety threat. Critics, together with Senator Bernie Sanders, argue towards subsidizing the semiconductor trade. Barbara Sprunt, NPR Information, Washington.

LAKSHMI SINGH: The intense warmth that prompted emergency warnings for tens of tens of millions of individuals throughout the Northeast and South is taking maintain as we speak on the Pacific Northwest. Nationwide Climate Service Meteorologist Zac Taylor has extra on what’s in retailer for areas the place dangerously excessive temperatures are prompting warmth warnings.

ZAC TAYLOR: Document highs are in jeopardy for Seattle and Portland. And so for Portland, Oregon the forecast is to succeed in close to 100. At the moment’s document is 100. After which in Seattle, the forecast excessive is for 93. And that will break the outdated document of 92.

LAKSHMI SINGH: Local weather scientists say because the planet will get hotter, excessive heat-related occasions comparable to wildfires will occur with larger frequency. One burning close to Yosemite Nationwide Park is huge. The Oak fireplace has burned greater than 18,000 acres because it began Friday.

European Union governments have agreed to voluntarily in the reduction of their gasoline utilization for the subsequent eight months to extend storage in case of Russian disruptions. From Brussels, Teri Schultz reviews the EU hopes sufficient gasoline will probably be put in storage to maintain all international locations provided for the winter.

TERI SCHULTZ: EU vitality ministers reached a compromise to chop gasoline use by 15% in all 27 international locations, regardless of opposition from some governments which aren’t depending on Russian imports. Although a number of international locations are anticipated to hunt exemptions, Czech Vitality Minister Jozef Sikela, whose nation holds the bloc’s rotating presidency, says the settlement is necessary.

JOZEF SIKELA: We wished to ship a transparent sign to the world and to Kremlin. And that is one thing we achieved.

TERI SCHULTZ: If the voluntary reductions go unfulfilled, the plan incorporates a mechanism for obligatory cuts. EU gasoline storage is about 2/3 full. The intention is to be at 80% by November, because the bloc fears a whole cutoff of Russian deliveries as relations deteriorate over Moscow’s invasion of Ukraine. For NPR Information, I am Teri Schultz in Brussels.

LAKSHMI SINGH: That is NPR Information.

CREW: Help for NPR comes from NPR stations. Different contributors embody Fisher Investments. Fisher Investments is a fiduciary, which implies they all the time put purchasers’ pursuits first. Fisher Investments, clearly totally different cash administration. Investing in securities includes the chance of loss.

CATHY WURZER: Round Minnesota proper now, skies are partly to largely cloudy. Highs as we speak will probably be within the 70s. And it could be raining the place you might be. It’s in Alexandria, the place it is 64. It is 73 on the Duluth Harbor.

And outdoors the Fats Pheasant Pub in Windham, it is sunny and 68. I am Cathy Wurzer with Minnesota information headlines. An enormous hole in marketing campaign cash stays between DFL Governor Tim Walz and Republican challenger Scott Jensen. Brian Bakst has extra on new marketing campaign finance reviews out as we speak.

BRIAN BAKST: As of final week, the incumbent, Walz, had nearly 9 instances as a lot cash obtainable as Jensen. That is extra to spend on employees, promoting, and different marketing campaign efforts within the remaining months within the run-up to November. In sheer {dollars}, it breaks down like this– Walz reported having simply shy of $5 million within the financial institution to Jensen’s $581,000.

However there’s extra to it. Walz has reserved tens of millions of in promoting time and commenced airing these commercials after the cutoff for reporting the most recent funds. These bills should not accounted for in these figures. Jensen hasn’t reserved any TV time but, however listed round $245,000 in radio and newspaper advert spending in July. DFL incumbents additionally had money benefits within the legal professional common and secretary of state races, however the Republican challenger is healthier positioned financially within the state auditor contest. I am Brian Bakst.

CATHY WURZER: A Hennepin County choose dominated as we speak {that a} controversial planning undertaking adopted by town of Minneapolis can go ahead amid a authorized problem. Again in June, the courtroom ordered a brief halt to the implementation of town’s 2040 Plan, which, partly, seeks to create extra housing density. The teams difficult the plan in courtroom say it opposes environmental hazards. At the moment, the courtroom dominated that town faces hurt in delaying the implementation of the plan, and it granted town’s request to remain the June order.

Our lead story– nurses on the Mayo Clinic Hospital in Mankato have formally lower ties with their union. Nurses voted 213 to 180 Monday to decertify the Minnesota Nurses Affiliation. Max Nesterak is Deputy Editor with the Minnesota Reformer. That is a nonprofit digital information outlet. He is been masking the union vote, and he joins me proper now. Welcome again to the present, Max.

MAX NESTERAK: Thanks for having me on, Cathy.

CATHY WURZER: This transfer, as you realize, is a defeat for the highly effective Minnesota Nurses Affiliation and a win for an anti-union group. How did this all come about?

MAX NESTERAK: So from my understanding, the petition was filed by a nurse named Brittany Burgess with free authorized help from a nationwide group referred to as the Nationwide Proper to Work Basis. They seem to be a group that helps employees across the nation file petitions for elections to decertify their unions. It is a nonprofit group and their mission is to get rid of coercive union energy and obligatory unionism, based on their mission assertion.

CATHY WURZER: Now, nurses there, gosh, had been a part of this union for greater than, what, 70 years. Do we all know why the nurses wished out?

MAX NESTERAK: That is proper. So this nurses union was fashioned even earlier than Mayo Clinic took management of the Mankato Hospital. Truly, there’s by no means been a profitable unionization effort amongst nurses at a Mayo Clinic. The entire 500 or so nurses that are actually unionized after this vote had been all grandfathered in.

To why so many nurses voted to depart the union remains to be considerably unclear to me. Folks have been very tight-lipped about this on each side. It has been a really tense challenge, as you may think about. And folks have not likely wished to speak on the document, and even on background, about what has led to this division.

I despatched calls to greater than half a dozen anti-union nurses. I posted up exterior the hospital to catch individuals on their approach coming throughout shift change. And no nurses who had been towards the union wished to talk with me. So all info I’ve gotten has come from the Nationwide Proper to Work Basis. They usually simply despatched me an announcement about two minutes in the past and so they mentioned, we’re proud to have helped Mayo Clinic nurses train their proper to free themselves of an undesirable union.

CATHY WURZER: What has the MNA mentioned?

MAX NESTERAK: So the MNA, they’ve pointed to the Nationwide Proper to Work Basis’s involvement and accused this of out of doors meddling and an out of doors political agenda. One factor I did notice in my story is that Brittany Burgess is the stepdaughter of Glen Taylor, a Republican billionaire who doesn’t favor unions. And the rationale why I believe that is necessary to say is as a result of some nurses had been invited to a decertification occasion at his Mankato home. So– go forward.

CATHY WURZER: We should always point out too when you’re speaking about this that our president, the president and CEO of American Public Media Group, which incorporates Minnesota Public Radio, is Jean Taylor. And Jean’s the daughter of Glen Taylor and the stepsister of Brittany Burgess, who’s concerned on this story. However Jean Taylor shouldn’t be concerned on this story. So go forward.

MAX NESTERAK: That is proper. Yeah. Good clarification. So the union can be pointing to that. They usually say in an announcement that I acquired yesterday, a nurse on the Mankato Hospital, she mentioned, quote, “the removing of the union marks one other unhappy step within the corporatization of neighborhood well being care in Southern Minnesota, following strikes by Mayo clinic to shut and consolidate providers in different communities.” So that they really feel like this can be a actual loss and say they concern that look after sufferers will go down as a result of nurses cannot discount for staffing ratios and different issues that they are saying helps sufferers.

CATHY WURZER: Max, there have been profitable efforts to dump unions in different sectors of the Minnesota financial system previously. I am curious– what is the course of to decertify?

MAX NESTERAK: So to decertify, a petition must be filed with the Nationwide Labor Relations Board. That is the federal company that regulates non-public sector unions. And also you want not less than 30% of the bargaining group to signal on to this petition. The Nationwide Proper to Work Basis mentioned they bought over 200 signatures on their petition.

In order that’s far more than they wanted, as a result of there’s about 500 nurses on the Mankato Hospital. And after that, the Nationwide Labor Relations Board holds a vote. And never everybody has to vote. As you talked about on the high, the vote was 213 to 181.

So that may be a excessive turnout for union elections. Oftentimes, you see that not even half of eligible employees vote. And so numerous nurses did vote– not all of them. And now what occurs is the NLRB has to certify the outcomes, which might take a couple of week.

However there may be nothing indicating that this would possibly not undergo. The nurses union hasn’t informed me that they will problem it. It wasn’t an in depth vote, with 213 voting to depart the union and 181 voting to remain.

CATHY WURZER: It is attention-grabbing that this occurred, Max, as you realize, as a result of we’re seeing different efforts to unionize in different components of the Minnesota financial system, proper? Quite a few locations have unionized. And the way does this vote, then, match into the bigger image of the labor motion in Minnesota proper now?

MAX NESTERAK: Proper. That is why I believe the story is so attention-grabbing as a result of we see all these tales about there being a surge in union help. And really, in case you have a look at Pew Analysis, Individuals’ help for unions has seldom been greater. The Nationwide Labor Relations Board says they’re seeing a 50% improve in requests for brand new Union elections over final 12 months.

So there may be numerous curiosity in labor organizing now. However that is not the whole story, as we see right here that there are profitable efforts to eliminate unions. And one factor {that a} Minnesota Nurses Affiliation Vice President informed me is he thinks the frustration that employees have felt in the course of the pandemic, particularly within the well being care sector that motivated numerous employees to hunt unions, may also be harnessed towards unions.

And so he introduced that again to the Nationwide Proper to Work Basis, says it was exterior individuals capitalizing on that employee frustration and channeling it towards the union. Make of that what you’ll. Once more, I am taken with listening to from anti-union nurses about why they voted towards leaving the union. However actually, this employee frustration that lots of people are feeling in the course of the pandemic has performed a task.

CATHY WURZER: May there be, then, extra medical services in Minnesota which may have related conditions pop up? Are you aware if the Proper to Work Basis is backing petitions at different locations?

MAX NESTERAK: They’re. They’re backing one at a number of Cuyuna services. These are clerical employees which are unionized with SEIU. We might see extra pop up at different Mayo Clinic services.

I ought to notice that Mayo Clinic employs about 22,000 nurses throughout the nation. And earlier than this vote, solely about 1,000 had been unionized, and all of these had been in Minnesota. In fact, Mayo Clinic has services all throughout the nation.

And these are primarily in Southern Minnesota in hospitals that Mayo clinic acquired. So of the five hundred or so remaining unionized nurses, we might, maybe, see extra decertification efforts there.

CATHY WURZER: All proper. I do know you may maintain digging. Thanks, Max. I recognize it.

MAX NESTERAK: Thanks for having me on, Cathy.

CATHY WURZER: Max Nesterak is a Deputy Editor for the Minnesota Reformer information website.


DAVINA LOZIER: You already know once you stroll down the road, you see the identical individuals that you just all the time meet. Do not be stunned if I stroll on by with out wanting again waving or saying hello. This time, I’ll take a distinct street.

Let’s hope it takes me up, [? behind, ?] under. So this would possibly not final, going to take a distinct street dwelling.

CATHY WURZER: Oh, that is the music Bee Sting by Davina and the Vagabonds off of their 2011 album Black Cloud. Rolling Stone journal says Davina Sowers creates her personal Americana mishmash– slightly Amy Winehouse-worthy neo-soul right here, slightly nice American songbook influenced songcraft there.

You could possibly catch them reside. The group is on tour this summer time.


DAVINA LOZIER: It takes me over down under, so this would possibly not final, I’ll take a distinct street dwelling.

CATHY WURZER: 12:16 right here on Minnesota Now from NPR Information. I am Cathy Wurzer. Say, in case you noticed somebody on the bottom, maybe with signs of a coronary heart assault, would you realize what to do? A survey from the Cleveland Clinic exhibits many Individuals do not have the data to assist somebody who’s having a coronary heart emergency, and sometimes do not even know the correct approach to assist themselves.

Dr. Jay-Sheree Allen talked about what to do if somebody is drowning in our final go to. At the moment, how you might save somebody’s life or, maybe, your personal. Dr. Allen is a Doctor at Mayo Clinic and the host of the Millennial Well being podcast. Hey, welcome again to this system.

JAY-SHEREE ALLEN: Thanks a lot for having me. I am excited to be again.

CATHY WURZER: All proper. Now, for people who’re just a bit unfamiliar with what we’re speaking about here– what does CPR do?

JAY-SHEREE ALLEN: OK, so CPR, which additionally means cardiopulmonary– so coronary heart lung resuscitation– it is an emergency lifesaving process, proper? And also you make the most of that when the guts stops beating. And it actually can save somebody’s life.

CATHY WURZER: How is it carried out? We see it on TV. Is that the proper option to do it on TV?

JAY-SHEREE ALLEN: Oh my god, no. I believe your docs are slightly Gray’s Anatomy’d out. No. So all proper, let’s speak about it. So there are two generally identified variations of CPR. So the model for well being care suppliers and those that are educated in CPR, and that is sort of the traditional approach with chest compressions and mouth to mouth– and we’ll speak slightly extra about that.

However we’re addressing your listeners as we speak, so I need to speak about for the final public– or simply bystanders– who witness an grownup who simply all of a sudden collapses. I do know it is intimidating, it is scary, it is actually scary. So I need to maintain it so simple as doable, as a result of, truthfully, in case you leap into motion shortly, you actually might improve this particular person’s probability of survival. Actually, you double or triple their probabilities of survival after a cardiac arrest in case you assist them with CPR.

CATHY WURZER: Oh my goodness. OK.

JAY-SHEREE ALLEN: Yeah, the statistics are actually vital. So here’s what we’ll do. You’re, I do not know, on the park– you might be wherever you might be, choose your spot– you witness an grownup collapse. So the very first thing you are going to do is name 911. If there’s another person round, ask them to name 911. Or what you might do is definitely simply put 911 in your speakerphone, and so they can stroll you thru this course of.

So once more, in case you’re actually nervous, that is one factor we do not assume that we will do. However simply dial 911 and hit speaker. Then, you need to ask somebody to get an AED. And these are belongings you’re doing in 2 seconds. Name 911. Somebody, discover an AED.

After which you are going to make sure the particular person is laying flat on the bottom in entrance of you, you recover from them, you place the heel of 1 hand within the heart of their chest, and then you definitely put your different hand on high of the primary hand. After which you’ll push exhausting and quick.

And also you’re pushing your hand down exhausting and quick. So it is a exercise. And you’ll want to push– sort of the speed we’re on the lookout for is round 100 to 120. Generally, we are saying is to the tune of Staying Alive. Simply sing that in your thoughts, and that is how briskly you have to be going. That is the tempo we’re on the lookout for.

CATHY WURZER: [HUMMING] Like duh duh duh duh nuh nuh, duh nuh nuh. Yeah, proper.

JAY-SHEREE ALLEN: You bought it. Thanks.

CATHY WURZER: I am questioning, though– are you able to do CPR incorrectly and do extra hurt than good?

JAY-SHEREE ALLEN: So you may. Sure, you are able to do CPR incorrectly. And all of us fear about doing extra hurt than good. However that is why I mentioned the very first step is asking 911.

So if you are making an attempt to assist this particular person, skilled well being care employees are on the best way, all proper? So you realize I wish to take the large image approach– sort of that hen’s eye view. So you need to perceive what it’s that you’re doing.

So consider the guts as a pump. The guts is a pump within the physique. What you might be primarily making an attempt to assist this particular person do is maintain their blood circulate lively till assist arrives. That’s actually it.

So the guts is the pump, and the pump is not in a position to operate by itself. You’re externally appearing because the pump to push their coronary heart to maintain that blood flowing. So in case you consider it that approach, it is rather less scary.



CATHY WURZER: Proper. It’s. It’s. So if I am not in a position to or do not actually know a lot about chest compressions– you talked about the AED. Begin wanting round for one thing like that and use that, then?

JAY-SHEREE ALLEN: Sure. So there are numerous totally different firms. So they arrive in numerous colours. However they’re usually these sq. containers that you’re going to see in numerous buildings. Now that hopefully we’re speaking about it, your consciousness of it would improve and you will begin wanting round in public areas wherever you might be to see the closest AED.

However this implies an automatic exterior defibrillator. So it is primarily a tool that may analyze the guts’s rhythm, and if it’s a necessity, it will possibly ship a shock, or defibrillation, to assist the guts reestablish or return into an efficient rhythm. So that is what this AED does.

And I believe what’s going to assist with that, Cathy, is that if we sort of degree slightly on some definitions. The time period cardiac arrests and the time period coronary heart attack– we have a tendency to make use of them interchangeably, however they don’t seem to be really the identical factor. So cardiac arrest is {an electrical} downside. So that is when the guts malfunctions or it stops beating unexpectedly due to {an electrical} challenge.

So we name that arrhythmia, or it is an irregular rhythm that is not working effectively for you. You need to be in sinus rhythm. The guts assault is a circulation downside. And that’s when blood circulate to the guts is blocked. So we’re really, although we use the phrases interchangeably, we’re speaking about various things right here.

CATHY WURZER: Bought it. So tremendous quick– the place does somebody study CPR?

JAY-SHEREE ALLEN: You’ll be able to go to the web site Coronary heart.org/CPR and put in your zip code. They usually’ll present you a lot of totally different places in your space the place you may take a category. I might extremely encourage anybody, particularly in case you’re caring for youngsters or aged adults, you might have anybody underneath your care, I extremely advocate getting licensed.

CATHY WURZER: OK. Good info. Thanks, Dr. Allen.

JAY-SHEREE ALLEN: You’re so welcome. I will see you subsequent time.

CATHY WURZER: All proper. Discuss to you later. Dr. Jay-Sheree Allen is a doctor at Mayo Clinic. She’s additionally the host of the Millennial Well being podcast. I believe we’re going to throw it to information in nearly 15 seconds.

CREW: Help comes from the Nice Lakes Aquarium in Duluth, that includes its new water splash exhibit, H2O Watersheds at Work, showcasing regional freshwater species and sources, plus marine animals, habitats, and contact swimming pools. Nice Lakes Aquarium– uncover marvel.

EMILY BRIGHT: Hey, Kathy. It is Emily Vibrant. I will simply leap in with information headlines. Russia will decide out of the Worldwide Area Station after 2024 and give attention to constructing its personal orbital outpost. Yury Borisov, who was appointed earlier this month to steer the state-controlled Russian Area Company Roscosmos, mentioned as we speak that Russia will fulfill its obligations to different companions on the Worldwide Area Station earlier than it leaves the undertaking.

The choice comes amid hovering tensions between Russia and the West over the Kremlin’s army motion in Ukraine. European Union governments have agreed to ration pure gasoline this winter to guard towards additional provide cuts by Russia. EU vitality ministers as we speak accredited a draft regulation meant to decrease demand for gasoline by 15% from August by means of March. The laws entails voluntary nationwide steps to scale back gasoline consumption and, in the event that they yield inadequate financial savings, set off a compulsory motion within the 27-member bloc.

Pope Francis has arrived for his first massive mass in Canada to honor grandparents. Tens of hundreds of individuals have turned out at Commonwealth Stadium in Edmonton, Alberta to mark the Feast of Saint Anne. She was the grandmother of Jesus and a determine of specific veneration for Canadian Catholics.

In his first occasion in Canada yesterday, Francis apologized for the Catholic Church’s participation within the, quote, “disastrous coverage” that compelled the assimilation of generations of Native kids into Christian tradition. Former President Donald Trump is returning to Washington as we speak for the primary time since leaving workplace.

He is delivering a speech hours after former Vice President Mike Pence, a possible 2024 rival, referred to as on the celebration to cease wanting backward. Trump’s look in Washington comes as his potential 2024 rivals have been more and more prepared to problem him instantly. The temperatures in Portland, Oregon might high 100 levels as we speak amid the most well liked stretch of a week-long warmth wave within the Pacific Northwest.

In Minnesota, in the meantime, highs are within the 70s with scattered showers and thunderstorms as we speak and tonight. We’ll have extra information at 1:00 right here on MPR Information.

CATHY WURZER: Thanks, Emily. 12:25. The town of Richfield is on the lookout for a brand new mayor. Its present chief, Maria Regan Gonzalez, is Minnesota’s first Latina mayor and youngest mayor Richfield has had. And she or he’s stepping apart. Earlier than she leaves workplace, we thought we would meet up with Mayor Gonzalez. Welcome to Minnesota Now.

MARIA REGAN GONZALEZ: Thanks a lot. Are you able to hear me?

CATHY WURZER: I can. Thanks very a lot. You sound nice. Say, it sounds as if you make some life modifications and you have got one other massive job to do. So speak about your determination to step down as mayor.

MARIA REGAN GONZALEZ: Completely. Effectively, I by no means thought I’d be in elected workplace. It was by no means one thing that had crossed my thoughts. However then as I began to study slightly bit extra concerning the affect you can also make in your personal neighborhood to make enhancements for well being and connectivity, I made a decision I need to run for workplace. However I knew that was not my aspiration to remain and be in politics.

And so I am able to proceed that journey and making a distinction in my neighborhood in a approach that permits me to have house to have a household, to get married, to have children, and serve my neighborhood as effectively. And when you’re in elected workplace on the native degree, these are part-time stipend positions. However in actuality, the position of mayor is 24/7. And so sustaining a full-time job, having a household, and being in elected workplace simply actually turns into close to not possible.

CATHY WURZER: So you are going to attempt to have work-life steadiness. Good for you.


CATHY WURZER: Yeah. Say, once you made the choice to run for mayor, was there ever a time once you thought, what have I completed?

MARIA REGAN GONZALEZ: Completely, all the time. And I’d say generally I believe it is good that you do not know what you are getting your self into, as a result of perhaps you may not have made the choice to do it. And I am very grateful for my time as mayor. I believe we have been in a position to make transformational and generational change that advances fairness within the metropolis of Richfield and has modeled that for different cities. However undoubtedly, I really feel like I bought a PhD in human relations previously few years.

CATHY WURZER: I might solely think about. Michael , Nutter he was the previous mayor of Philadelphia, as soon as mentioned that being a mayor is the most effective job in politics. He figured you may get issues completed, you can also make issues happen– even when it is simply getting the streets plowed quick, which is a key job right here in Minnesota. So it sounds such as you agree with him.

MARIA REGAN GONZALEZ: Completely. I really like the position of mayor. I’d like to be a mayor and a mother. And the actual fact is that if I am not retired, I am not independently rich, I have to have a full-time job. And that is simply not doable. However being a mayor is completely the most effective job.

It is the closest degree of presidency to the individuals. We’re actually within the grocery retailer. Folks can inform me what they assume and what must be modified. And numerous instances, we will make these modifications instantly. And also you’re affecting the issues that have an effect on the standard of life for everyone– the daily issues that matter, like water, do you’re feeling protected and linked in your neighborhood, do you might have entry to inexperienced house and nice housing? That is what we get to work on each single day as mayors.

CATHY WURZER: What is the hardest a part of the job?

MARIA REGAN GONZALEZ: The hardest a part of the job. I imply, to be trustworthy, I believe– I name it the Obama effect– however when Obama turned president, there was this pondering of, oh my gosh, all structural racism is gone. We now have a Black man in workplace as president, and folks feeling slightly little bit of that Obama impact, like there’s one particular person on this position as mayor, and meaning all of this lengthy historical past of structural racism and inequities are going to go away, and folks actually having these outrageous expectations on one particular person, however not desirous to take accountability and possession.

All of us have a task in addressing these points. And it is not simply on the mayor. It is not simply on one piece of our neighborhood. All of us should contribute– and folks actually pondering, in some methods, that is your job, you have to do it, and why did you not repair these years and generations of structural inequities since you turned mayor?

CATHY WURZER: Do you assume you made not less than some little little bit of an inroad towards making an attempt to rectify a few of the inequities in Richfield?

MARIA REGAN GONZALEZ: Completely. I really assume we now have made great impression. So we now have embedded fairness as a core consideration to all of our work throughout the entire metropolis of Richfield. We now have our employees taking a look at, what does that imply in each degree of what they do?

We had been in a position to work with tenants to safe inexpensive housing and keep inexpensive housing in Richfield. Our inclusionary housing coverage shouldn’t be solely centered on inexpensive housing, but it surely’s additionally centered on accessible housing for individuals with disabilities. There’s not many inclusionary housing insurance policies which have that focus.

We labored with tenants in MNDOT to say, we’d like a pedestrian bridge to attach a few of our inexpensive housing neighborhoods to the direct supply of pharmacy and grocery with a pedestrian bridge over the freeway. And so I really feel like I have not made slightly impression, we collectively in Richfield have made great quantities of generational enhancements to concretely enhance the lives of all of our residents. And I am very pleased with that.

CATHY WURZER: So, then, I am curious, Mayor Gonzalez– on the state degree, and perhaps due to the place you sit you may need some attention-grabbing issues to say about this– Senator Patricia Torres Ray, Consultant Carlos Mariani, they’re retiring– gosh, DFL Senate Caucus Chief Melissa Lopez Franzen is stepping down due to redistricting points. I believe there’s just one Latina working for a seat within the Minnesota Home. So I am curious– what’s the way forward for Latino political engagement in Minnesota?

MARIA REGAN GONZALEZ: Yeah. And I’ve linked with all of these. And they’re all mentors and buddies of mine. And it’s exhausting to see numerous us retiring on the similar time. They usually have all had for much longer years of political service.

I’ll say we now have a big group of neighborhood members that’s rising of their political engagement and their advocacy. We now have individuals in different metropolis councils, Latinas like in Shakopee and different areas, which are working and are in positions presently. And so there may be numerous curiosity.

And we now have the biggest rising constituency base of voters and new voters, and numerous political and social energy within the Latino neighborhood in Minnesota. And there is numerous curiosity and engagement. And even in case you have a look at Richfield, it is 40% of our college students are Latino college students.

You have a look at cities like Wilmer, and Worthington, and cities and larger Minnesota, you see Latinos fueling the rebirth of their downtown districts, of their faculties. And so our affect and our means to make a change in our neighborhood is rising. And, whereas there’s 4 of us retiring, we do have a robust bench of parents which are very politically engaged and are getting extra of our residents and our neighborhood members engaged within the political course of.

CATHY WURZER: Do you assume you may come again into the political course of when you perhaps get out of it for slightly bit, loosen up, have a little bit of a life, have a family– after which would possibly you return?

MARIA REGAN GONZALEZ: Effectively, I’ll all the time be linked within the sense of one in every of my largest passions is supporting and mentoring different younger girls of coloration to personal their management. And so whether or not that has been supporting individuals to be candidates politically, begin their very own nonprofits and organizations, that’s one thing that I am all the time going to do.

Future curiosity in being a candidate again– perhaps. I’ll say as a mayor, I get to be nonpartisan, and I completely love that. I get to place the neighborhood first above a political platform, and that is what I like to do– put neighborhood above partisan politics.

And so I can take part in that in so many various methods. So I’ll all the time be engaged on advancing neighborhood first. And we’ll see all of the totally different ways in which seems like.

Operating for greater workplace, I do not know. We’ll see.

CATHY WURZER: It is all proper. It is OK.


CATHY WURZER: I recognize your time. Thanks. I want you all the most effective and thanks for what you have completed for Richfield.

MARIA REGAN GONZALEZ: Completely. Thanks a lot for this chance. Maria Regan Gonzalez is the mayor of Richfield.

CREW: Programming is supported by Paint Care, now with greater than 260 drop-off websites in Minnesota, the place households and companies can recycle their leftover paint. Extra at paintcare.org.

CATHY WURZER: It is Minnesota Now right here on MPR information. I am Cathy Wurzer. Pope Francis continues his go to to Canada as we speak. His mission is to apologize in-person for what he is referred to as the church’s catastrophic coverage of Indian boarding faculties, which led to the destruction of households and injury to Native tradition. A Minneapolis-based group referred to as the Nationwide Native American Boarding Faculty Therapeutic Coalition has a consultant on the conferences to ask for some particular actions from the Pope.

Right here with extra is Sam Torres, Deputy Chief Govt Officer of the Nationwide Native American Boarding Faculty Therapeutic Coalition. Sam, welcome to this system.


CATHY WURZER: Would you wish to introduce your self?


Good morning, relations. My identify is Sam Torres. I’m Ashika and Nahua, with relations in Los Angeles, El Paso, and Zacatecas, Mexico. And on my mom’s facet, I am additionally Irish and Scottish. I am the Deputy Chief Govt Officer for the Nationwide Native American Boarding Faculty Therapeutic Coalition, and simply glad to be right here as we speak.

CATHY WURZER: Thanks for being with us. I recognize that. Let’s speak about what we’re seeing in Canada. There are a number of conferences which have been happening. I am curious– why did your group determine to be concerned?

SAM TORRES: Effectively, we now have been asking for motion from the Catholic Church, Christian establishments, and governments which are liable for Indian boarding college and residential college insurance policies which have deeply impacted and have left open scars, open wounds in Indigenous communities throughout Turtle Island. So we discovered it extraordinarily necessary to have the ability to be on the bottom there to be with our relations north of the drugs line as these phrases are being acquired.

CATHY WURZER: And who’s representing your group?

SAM TORRES: Our CEO Debra Parker, who’s from the Tulalip tribes, she is in Canada proper now. And she or he was there yesterday to obtain the apology in-person.

CATHY WURZER: How did that go? What had been the sentiments like there?

SAM TORRES: It is a complete mixture of feelings starting from many of us showing to obtain therapeutic from this, who’ve waited their whole lives to listen to one thing like this from the chief of the Catholic Church. However alternatively, we have additionally seen, and skilled, and heard from of us which have talked about that an apology shouldn’t be enough– that an apology must be accompanied by motion.

And so one factor that we all know, that the Catholic Church has information and repositories with boarding college paperwork that rightfully belong to Native peoples. And what we would finally wish to see is these paperwork to be made extra accessible, for these paperwork to have the ability to be within the palms of Native peoples in order that they’ll study extra substantively about what occurred to their relations.

CATHY WURZER: Is that this a part of the Doctrine of Discovery that I’ve heard about? I’ve only in the near past heard about this. Are you able to clarify that for people?

SAM TORRES: So the Doctrine of Discovery is a set of fifteenth century papal bulls that primarily sanctioned European claims to Indigenous lands. If European colonizers tried to assert lands, they may achieve this legally by means of these sequence of fifteenth century papal bulls. And the Doctrine of Discovery is not only a sequence of historic paperwork.

The Doctrine of Discovery has a agency authorized precedent within the Western authorized system. And so this has actual world implications even to this present day.

CATHY WURZER: How did the Catholic Church, Sam, use the Doctrine of Discovery to advertise the residential boarding schools– the try and assimilate Indigenous peoples into the Christian tradition?

SAM TORRES: Effectively, the Doctrine of Discovery primarily characterised Indigenous peoples as subhuman. It meant that they might be subjugated. It meant that they might be managed. It meant they might be objectified and that their lands had been, primarily, nonetheless thought of, quote unquote, “wilderness,” and it might be, primarily, claimed.

And this was a precedent that swept the whole world, significantly in North America, the place boarding faculties had been primarily an expression of that. And this sweeping philosophy was a machine, primarily, that allowed for the justification of the subjugation of Indigenous peoples, even the enslavement of Africans in the USA.

CATHY WURZER: How would possibly a few of these paperwork be used for additional therapeutic within the Indigenous communities?

SAM TORRES: I believe that there’s an unlimited alternative for bringing Indigenous of us collectively from throughout Turtle Island to have the ability to discover extra details about their relations. However, the truth is, we have already seen many situations the place the accessibility of boarding college information and paperwork has allowed for substantive therapeutic of relations which are on the lookout for details about their dad and mom, their grandparents.

There are some tasks that already exist– the Carlisle Digital Reconciliation Venture that’s hosted by Dickinson School. They’ve had a digital archive that has made these information accessible. What NABS is looking for to do is making an attempt to mixture or bringing a lot of these tasks collectively, and to create a central digital archive, a central repository. When these info are aggregated in that approach, what we have seen is a brand new sort of accessibility. We’re, after all, working with different tasks comparable to Carlisle, Genoa on the College of Nebraska, and others to have the ability to accomplish these objectives.

CATHY WURZER: Say, a remaining query right here for you. Now, we have been speaking about one of many concrete steps could be to show over church information concerning the destiny of Indigenous kids who died on the faculties. However I additionally know that Indigenous peoples in Canada need funding for therapeutic therapeutic applications for survivors, and likewise investigations, perhaps facilitation of investigations, of these liable for the abuses. It has been so long– what of that?

SAM TORRES: One factor that has been a concerted problem in Indigenous communities throughout North America has been the impacts of residential and boarding faculties with regard to intergenerational trauma. These are wounds that our communities haven’t had the quantity of sources essential to substantively strategy these. As a method of trying to revive what has been taken, what has been wounded by Christian establishments, by the Catholic Church, by federal governments, each in the USA and Canada– accountability must appear to be listening to Native individuals, listening to Native leaders.

When Native leaders and Native persons are asking for culturally acceptable, culturally related therapeutic modalities and sources to have the ability to help that, it is necessary to not simply pay attention, however to take motion on that. So the information are necessary. Repudiating the Doctrine of Discovery– these are important. However when Native leaders, Native communities are repeatedly telling the world that this could be necessary to assist restore our lifeways, that culturally related therapeutic modalities, that sources to carry our communities collectively, and the autonomy to have the ability to make these selections for themselves, that’s simply as necessary as the entire different targets that Native leaders have been asking.

So I actually do hope that there’s substantive motion that is taken by the Catholic Church within the wake of this apology from Pope Francis. I hope that the federal governments of Canada, of the USA can lean into these conversations extra severely. As we all know with the Canadian Reality and Reconciliation Fee, there have been 94 calls to motion that had been created– suggestions, primarily, with respect to stroll on this approach with Canadian First Nations peoples.

A few of them have been achieved. Actually, one in every of them was achieved yesterday with the papal apology. However a lot of them are nonetheless left unchecked. So with respect to the Canadian expertise, these calls to motion should be reconsidered as soon as extra.

And inside the USA, there may be presently a legislative invoice within the Home and a legislative invoice within the Senate that NABS has supported. We wrote a lot of this bill– the Reality and Therapeutic Fee invoice on Indian boarding faculties. And these are necessary measures to have the ability to take note of and to help.

CATHY WURZER: We’ll be watching carefully, clearly. Sam, I recognize your time. Thanks so very a lot for the dialog as we speak.

SAM TORRES: Thanks, Cathy. I recognize it.

CATHY WURZER: Sam Torres is the Deputy Chief Govt Officer of the Nationwide Native American Boarding Faculty Therapeutic Coalition.



JOHNNY CASH: Dinosaurs lived a very long time in the past, they had been horrible lizards, do not you realize? Some ate vegetation and a few eat meat. Some ate fish and a few ate beets.

CATHY WURZER: It is true– nation legend Johnny Money did a kids’s album in 1976. And that is The Dinosaur Track. You probably have children in your life, you will have fielded hundreds of questions on dinosaurs, like, why do some dinosaurs have such massive heads and tiny arms?

Effectively, we might have a solution for you. College of Minnesota Professor Peter Makovicky puzzled the identical factor, and he is one of many authors of a newly revealed examine shedding mild on the evolution and biology of those dinosaurs. And he is with me proper now. Welcome to this system.

PETER MAKOVICKY: Thanks and good afternoon, Cathy.

CATHY WURZER: Good afternoon, professor. OK, so it sounds just like the tiny arms and large heads, these dinosaurs have been sort of a scientific thriller for a while. Say extra about that.

PETER MAKOVICKY: Yeah. So, clearly, this thriller that you just seek advice from began with the invention of T-Rex over 120 years in the past now. Why would you might have this extremely massive animal with an enormous head full of massive tooth, after which extremely quick arms?

So only for individuals to visualise it, T-Rex is a nine-ton animal with a 5-foot head, however has an arm about the identical size as an grownup human. What had been they used for? What good had been they, mainly? And in order that’s a query we contemplated as scientists ever since that discovery.

And it seems it is not simply T-Rex. There are literally not less than three totally different households of meat-eating dinosaurs which have that very same physique plan– massive dimension, massive heads, and quick arms. And so with the invention of a brand new species from Patagonia, we have really been in a position to take a look at this query statistically on this current examine you referred to.

CATHY WURZER: They usually weren’t even geographically shut to at least one one other. Is that proper?

PETER MAKOVICKY: Sure. So the attention-grabbing factor is these three lineages, the tyrannosaurs that we’re all conversant in, the abelisaurs, and the carcharodontosaurus, that are higher identified from the Southern continents, achieved this related physique plan independently of each other and at barely totally different instances within the geological document. So that they’re form of changing one another, because it had been, in doing this ecological factor reasonably than form of coexisting. So there may be some construction to that, which can be attention-grabbing.

CATHY WURZER: So how did you and the opposite researchers decide that this might assist shed some mild on different already found meat-eating dinosaurs? How did that occur?

PETER MAKOVICKY: Yeah. So in 2012, I used to be working with my collaborators in Argentina on a world collaboration. And we found a brand new species of meat-eating dinosaur, which we named meraxes gigas on this current paper. And the neat factor about meraxes is it is a carcharodontosaurid– so it is in the identical household as giganotosaurus, a T-Rex dimension predator that folk could also be conversant in from the current Jurassic World Dominion film.

And as luck would have it, meraxes has probably the most full forelimb of any of those carcharodontosaurids from South America. And one factor we seen instantly is that it is proportionately tiny, the identical approach and similar to what we see in T-Rex relations. And we puzzled, was {that a} coincidence or does that really point out some sort of lively choice over evolutionary time for these quick arms?

And we undertook a lot of superior statistics, considering that we now have three totally different lineages doing this. And we confirmed that the similarity, the diploma of forelimb discount in tyrannosaurs, carcharodontosaurs, and abelisaurs could be very unlikely to have occurred by chance– these animals ended up wanting like each other for an excellent cause. In order that was form of the primary clue we had that perhaps there’s extra to those arms than we predict.

After which we form of did some broader comparisons wanting on the physique proportions of meat-eating dinosaurs extra broadly. And what we mainly confirmed is that this is not only a operate of dimension. There are different massive, meat-eating dinosaurs whose forelimbs should not as lowered.

So it is one thing particular about these three species. And what we had been in a position to zero in on statistically is that they’ve actually massive heads. So what we predict is that over evolutionary time, these three lineages are impartial of each other, they’re getting greater, and they’re getting actually huge skulls with large chunk forces. And as a consequence, they’re decreasing their forelimbs. So that they’re form of actively evolving in direction of this physique plan that, clearly, is legendary and well-known to everyone.

CATHY WURZER: So OK, if somebody’s simply tuning in, they’re listening, they’re pondering, OK, this sounds sort of cool. So what is the takeaway for people on this?

PETER MAKOVICKY: Yeah. So I believe the takeaway is that we, as people, are extremely centered on our dexterous forelimbs and our means to govern the atmosphere round us utilizing our palms and our arms. So for us, it is extremely form of counterintuitive to think about one other group of bipedal animals mainly decreasing their forelimbs and making them much less useful.

However the truth is, we now have these lineages of dinosaurs which are transferring, because it had been, the features of the forelimb to the features to the cranium. They’re form of re-optimizing their skeleton. And in order that’s an attention-grabbing level in an evolutionary sense, as a result of the three lineages of dinosaurs we’re speaking about are the biggest bipedal animals to have lived and to have acted as high predators of their ecosystems.

So I believe it is one in every of this stuff that form of, once more, challenges our understanding of nature and challenges our understanding of how ecosystems labored previously versus how they work as we speak.

CATHY WURZER: Say, I perceive that this specific dinosaur was found some 10 years in the past. So this analysis is simply popping out now, which is sort of attention-grabbing. That is fairly a lag time.

PETER MAKOVICKY: Yeah. So I believe of us are perhaps slightly misled by the form of impressions you get watching Jurassic Park. I bear in mind the early ones, they only form of brushed some sand off and there is the entire skeleton, after which they use some imaging and hey, presto, it seems. After which in one of many subsequent ones, they only form of 3D print the entire thing in form of film time in a few minutes.

And naturally, it takes for much longer paleontologically. In order I discussed, we found the specimen in 2012. It took 4 digging seasons to really get the entire skeleton.

CATHY WURZER: Ah. OK. It took you some time.

PETER MAKOVICKY: Yeah. It took some time to really get it out of the bottom. After which once you acquire fossils, you acquire them with a few of the surrounding rock, you encase it in plaster jackets to guard it. So then there is a very lengthy means of what we name preparation, the place you might have expert technicians mainly eradicating that surrounding rock, cleansing up the bones, and stabilizing them with a wide range of adhesives to really enable us to maneuver them and examine them.

And that is when the analytical half begins taking place. And clearly, there’s some delay as a result of that is a world collaboration. My co-authors, my companions are in Argentina. There’s some delay, clearly, inevitably attributable to the pandemic and our lack of ability for me to journey down there and work with them.

So it really takes time. So 10 years is perhaps on the longer finish of issues, but it surely’s common for a dinosaur. Keep in mind, it has been within the floor for 100 million years.

CATHY WURZER: Precisely.

PETER MAKOVICKY: 10 years is within the margin of error.

CATHY WURZER: Effectively, professor, thanks in your time. It was very attention-grabbing. I recognize it.

PETER MAKOVICKY: Yeah. Thanks, Cathy. You might have an awesome day.

CATHY WURZER: You too. U of M Professor Peter Makovicky has been with us. Say, I bought slightly notice right here from Jane in Bloomington concerning the dialog we did about CPR earlier within the present. She says, my cousin’s daughter simply did CPR on her husband who was blue and unresponsive due to coronary heart failure only a few weeks in the past.

EMTs needed to revive him and he subsequently had quadruple bypass. He is at dwelling, however she actually did save his life by doing CPR on her husband. So yeah, it is a good factor to know, CPR– thanks, Jane, for listening.

So when you’ve got a remark about as we speak’s program, in case you’ve bought an concept for us, somebody we should always speak to, we have an e-mail for you. It is Minnesota Now at npr.org. So glad you joined us right here on this Tuesday. Have yourselves an excellent remainder of the day.

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